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(MENAFN- Asia Times) ULSAN, South Korea – South Korea’s hub of abundant industry is action big on hydrogen as a approaching ammunition source, with accumulated heavyweights including Hyundai Motor wading abysmal into the space.

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The automated burghal of Ulsan, two hours from Seoul by ammo alternation on the country’s southeast coast, is arising as a civic locus for hydrogen power. Sometimes accepted as“Hyundai City,” it is home to above firms including all-around top 10 automaker Hyundai Motor and the world’s arch shipbuilder, Hyundai Abundant Industries.

Beyond autos and ships, it additionally hosts advancing petrochemical and array sectors and adopted firms including BASF, S-Oil and Dupont.

As hydrogen take-up takes off, Korean accumulated admiral achievement for a so-called“Golden Cross:” A aggregate of economies of scale, accompanying efficiencies and bigger technologies. That would accompany costs bottomward to astute levels.

No question, Korea needs a clean, blooming solution.

Armed with a civic armory of abundant industry, Korea badly needs to abate emissions to ability net-zero in 2050 – but is a latecomer to renewables. This may explain why it is one of the aboriginal three nations on apple to acquire adopted a civic hydrogen alley map.

On Wednesday, Ulsan – additionally accepted as Korea’s“Capital of Industry” – kicked off a three-day, 350-booth hydrogen expo. And as the country carefully emerges from Covid-19 and holds an“Invest Korea Week,” adopted reporters were arrive to Ulsan to attending at developments as the burghal seeks to allurement adopted investment.

Major investments are, indeed, underway. German annual Linde, for example, is currently affianced in establishing what is actuality billed as the world’s bigger aqueous hydrogen facility, in affiliation with bounded action close Hyosung. Completion is set for 2023.

Still, there are risks anchored in hydrogen.

Questions adhere over the efficiencies of hydrogen bearing processes; the efficiencies of hydrogen as a ammunition source; and its all-embracing cost-effectiveness.

With autos belching out a cogent block of all-around greenhouse gas emissions, it is additionally far from bright – admitting above investments in the area from Korea’s Hyundai and Japan’s Toyota – whether the all-around car-buying accessible will acquire hydrogen ammunition corpuscle vehicles. Their take-up currently lags far abaft that of EVs, and some manufacturers, including VW and Nissan, acquire accounting off hydrogen.

An official from abuse close Hyundai Rotem, which was showcasing a hydrogen ammunition corpuscle tram at the expo, may acquire put his feel on the accepted accompaniment of diplomacy aback he said,“Rather than cost-effectiveness, it’s added about eco-friendliness.”

That annual ties in with what one auger appropriate is the acumen Korea is prioritizing hydrogen ammunition corpuscle cartage for Korean roads: The curtailment of renewable energies in the Korean grid, which provides the ability antecedent for battery-powered electric vehicles.

There are about four formats of hydrogen. Traditional“gray” hydrogen is generated from deposit fuels but releases CO2, acceptation it is no band-aid for countries committed to emissions reductions.

However, there are able formats of low-carbon and alike no-carbon hydrogen.

“Blue” hydrogen is created from accustomed gas, and admitting it gives off emissions, these are abundantly dealt with by use of carbon-capture technologies.“Green” hydrogen uses renewable action to accomplish hydrogen from water, via the action of electrolysis. And“Pink” hydrogen is generated from nuclear sources.

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These closing formats attending like the future. But there are aerial obstacles.

“Currently, all-around assembly of low-carbon hydrogen is minimal, its amount is not yet aggressive and its use in able sectors such as industry and carriage charcoal bound – but there are auspicious signs that it is on the bend of cogent amount declines and boundless all-around growth,” the International Action Agency, or IEA, acclaimed in a columnist absolution heralding the absolution of a report, All-around Hydrogen Review 2021 , in October.

A above catechism is whether blooming hydrogen can be cost-efficient: It is still 2-3 times added big-ticket than dejected hydrogen, a 2020 abode by the International Renewable Action Agency, or IRENA notes.

Hydrogen has accurate appliance as a ability antecedent in such emissions-heavy sectors such as steel, chemicals, abundant transport, aircraft and aviation, the IEA says. However, the bureau additionally addendum that the bazaar for hydrogen articles is beginning – acceptation appeal needs to be stoked by policy.

“Decisive action by governments is analytical to alleviate advance for low-carbon hydrogen” the IEA asserted.

There, Korea is on the arch bend of the curve. The country boasts an absorbing clue record, dating aback to the 1960s, of top-down automated policy, and according to the IEA, was one of the aboriginal three countries, forth with France and Japan, to lay out a civic hydrogen alley map.

Certainly, South Korea needs an access to escape its emissions conundrum. The country is a abundant industry powerhouse, with key strengths in chips, autos, ships, petrochemicals and steel. These big boy sectors cannot await on aquiver renewables as action sources.

That may explain why the allotment of renewables in the civic action mix is alone 4% – putting Korea in 37th place amid 38 countries studied in a 2021 report,“Powering the World,” by Annual Bidder. Abundant industry, generally, cannot use renewables as they cannot accumulation steady, non-oscillating power.

For Korean metal bashers, the accepted era – in which abridgement of greenhouse gases is a all-around antecedence – is problematic. The G10 abridgement is, according to presentations delivered at the Jeongseong ESG appointment this year, the world’s seventh-largest emitter of CO2, while its per capita emissions are the fourth accomplished on earth.

Still, there is money to be made, The all-around hydrogen fuel-cell bazaar is accepted to hit $49.12 billion by 2026, according to a 2019 abode by Reports and Data.

And according to abstracts handed to journalists, Seoul has above ambitions.

The country affairs to accession the cardinal of hydrogen ammunition corpuscle cartage from 18,000 in 2018 to 81,000 in 2022 and 6.2 actor in 2040. Hydrogen pumping stations will access from 14 civic in 2018 to 310 in 2022 and 1,200 in 2040.

In 2018, some 308 megwattts of hydrogen were accessible for ability plants. In 2022 the accumulation will acceleration to 1.5 gigawatts, and in 2040 to 15 gigawatts.

These economies of calibration should annoyance appraisement down. Seoul’s ambition amount for hydrogen is set at 6,000 won ($5) per kilogram for 2022, to abatement to 4,000 won in 2030 and 3,000 won in 2040.

National dejected chips are axle assimilate the hydrogen bandwagon, with Ulsan-based Hyundai Motor actuality decidedly bullish.

The aggregation appear in September that it would action all its bartering cartage – trucks, buses and others – in hydrogen-powered models by 2028. The carmaker affairs to acquire 80% of all-around sales taken up by blooming cartage – electric and hydrogen – by 2040.That is an aggressive plan, accustomed that Hyundai’s electric and hydrogen models currently annual for aloof 1.5% of the firm’s all-around sales.

At the expo, Hyundai was showcasing three models – a truck, an SUV and a saloon. The X-cient barter has a ambit of 400 kilometers, while the Nexo SUV has a ambit of 600 kilometers.

And Hyundai’s hydrogen pumps can allegation its cars’ fuels corpuscle up to 80% in aloof 18-minutes, a aggregation rep explained. In the aforementioned timeframe, a laptop can alone allegation up 15%, and a cellphone 30%, according to Hyundai’s materials.

Sister aggregation Hyundai Rotem is alive on hydrogen-powered ammo trains and accompanying solutions. Aggregation official Cho Yo-han alien a hydrogen tram, which he expects to be active through burghal centers in 2027-2028. The tram uses four Hyundai-designed ammunition endless – anniversary advised to ammunition a distinct commuter car – in its hydrogen ammunition cell.

According to FuelCellNews , Hyundai Abundant Industries appear in September that it had active a advertisement of compassionate with an Austrian accomplice to advance hydrogen ammunition beef for ships.

That followed a above-mentioned announcement, in March, of“Hydrogen Dream 2030” by the world’s bigger shipbuilder to body a abounding eco-system by 2030. That will accommodate a baptize electrolysis bulb for“green” hydrogen. Additionally aftermost March, the aggregation acquired the all-important licensing to activate designing abounding hydrogen carriers.

That is aloof some of the after use.

In the upstream space, action amassed Hyosung is currently architecture what specialist advertisement Gas Apple calls “the world’s distinct bigger aqueous hydrogen accomplishment facility: in a collective adventure with German annual Linde.

According to Linde , which claims to acquire the bigger aqueous hydrogen accommodation and administration arrangement in the world, the Ulsan bulb will accomplish abundant to ammunition 100,000 cars and save up to 130,000 bags of carbon tailpipe emissions a year.

The JV will produce, administer – via 30 large-capacity pumps – and advertise aqueous hydrogen beyond Korea. Alike so, in its aboriginal stages, the bulb itself will be an emitter: It will be old-school“gray” hydrogen, accepted aggregation official Kim Shin-geun.

“We plan to aggrandize use of [clean] hydrogen, so we charge to aggrandize our basement first,” Kim said. A alteration alleyway exists. The close is attractive at accepting carbon abduction technologies to about-face the“grey” hydrogen“blue,” by 2025, he said.

But the Holy Grail remains“green” – which Hyosung is aiming for by 2030.

“Green” hydrogen converts baptize into hydrogen application electrolizers in a action fueled by renewable action sources. The aggregation is already affianced in bearing solar calls and wind turbines, which, Kim says, grants Hyosung synergies.

Ulsan, which boats the accomplished GDP in the country acknowledgment to its absolute portfolio of industries, wants in on this action.

Mayor Song Chul-ho in an abode to the expo, talked up absolute strengths and accessible projects. The burghal affairs an adopted wind acreage to accomplish the renewable action to ability the electrolysis action of extracting hydrogen from water. The plan is to accomplish 84,000 bags of“green” hydrogen annually.

A burghal official abundant the plan for a 1,000 household“pilot city” complete with hydrogen fueled homes, school, hospital and accessible carriage – admitting the timing of that action is vague.

In a bid to cull in adopted basic and expertise, the Ulsan Free Economic Zone (“UFEZ”) was bought into acknowledged actuality this year, and the burghal boasts eased regulations for H2 technologies, as able-bodied as a analysis convention that tests affidavit of concept.

The official asserted that hydrogen will benefit, rather than replace, existing, transitioning industries. Yet he accepted that the all-inclusive majority of the hydrogen currently actuality generated is“gray:” Some 820,000 bags annually.

The official said that the 84,000 bags of offshore-wind generated“green” hydrogen will advice to account this. Moreover, carbon abduction technologies, that will turn“gray” hydrogen“blue” are beneath development in the city’s R&D facilities. Another 440,000 bags of hydrogen will be generated from imported“green” ammonia.

However, there is, as yet, neither a bounded or civic action arrangement planned for aqueous hydrogen, nor are there any credible plans.“The costs would be actual aerial for a abounding hydrogen pipeline,” said one being at the expo.“I am not abiding if it is feasible.”

Hyosung is strategizing this administration challenge. One acknowledgment is a arrangement of hydrogen ability stations nationwide, creating what Kim calls a“mother and daughter” arrangement of hubs and spokes.

But alike that bearings would still await on old-school road-based tankers trucking the hydrogen about charging stations. And there are broader challenges adverse the all-embracing hydrogen sector.

A being accustomed with the sector, speaking on action of anonymity as he did not ambition to accommodation relations with colleagues in the industry, acclaimed that hydrogen bearing is still awful expensive.

“Electroylzers amount a lot,” he said, apropos to the accessories that use renewables to abstract hydrogen from water.“For a brace of megawatts, you are attractive at a brace of hundred actor dollars.” 

Moreover, hydrogen is difficult to manage. Aback it comes to production, carriage and storage, it is volatile, accountable to leaks, and charge be absolutely temperature-controlled, he said.

And accepted clear brawl gazing may be ever optimistic, he warned.

“Everyone talks 2030 or 2035 for it to become economical,” the antecedent said.“But there is boilerplate abreast the uptake that justifies the aberration of action at the moment.”

He additionally questioned whether all-around auto buyers would be absorbed in hydrogen ammunition corpuscle EVs accustomed the accepted absorption in electric vehicles, and appropriate that amalgam cars are additionally a band-aid with no defended future.

But he did advance one acumen why Korea is decidedly agog to abide its anchorage with hydrogen ammunition corpuscle vehicles.

“There is added of a case in Korea for hydrogen ammunition corpuscle cartage than for electric array EVs due to the abridgement of renewables in the grid,’ he said.


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